AARTY Army artillery

ADAM artillery-delivered antipersonnel mine

a marksmanship fundamental; refers to the precise alignment of the rifle sights with the target

ALICE all-purpose lightweight individual carrying equipment

AM amplitude modulation

a device used to radiate or receive electromagnetic energy (usually RF)

a device, method, or system used to reduce or eliminate the effects of jamming

AP antipersonnel

APFT Army Physical Fitness Test

APICM antipersonnel improved conventional munition

one who services and makes repairs on small arms and performs similar duties to keep small arms ready for use

ARNG Army National Guard

ART auto-ranging telescope

ARTEP Army Training and Evaluation Program

AVLB armored vehicle launched bridge

AWADS adverse weather aerial delivery system

the projectile; the bullet

a science that deals with the motion and flight characteristics of projectiles

BDU battle dress uniform

BMNT beginning morning nautical twilight

breath control
a marksmanship fundamental; refers to the control of breathing to help keep the rifle steady during firing

bullet drop
how far the bullet drops from the line of departure to the point of impact

bull's-eye target
any target with a round black circle and scoring rings Normally used in competitive marksmanship training

butt plate
metal or rubber covering of the end of the stock on the rifle

CALFEX combined arms live-fire exercise

a complete round of ammunition

CAS close air support

CLGP cannon-launched guided projectile

CLP cleaner, lubricant, preservative

cm centimeter

CMF career management field

a conductor or system of conductors used as a substitute for a ground in an antenna system

CP concrete-piercing

CQ charge of quarters

crack and thump
a method to determine the general direction and distance to an enemy firer who is shooting at you

a vise-like mechanism that holds a weapon in a secured position during test firing

a chemical agent (tear gas)

CW continuous wave

dia diameter

a radio antenna consisting of two horizontal rods in line with each other with their ends slightly separated

DPICM dual-purpose improved conventional munition

DIG date-time group

DZ drop zone

E&E evasion and escape

ECM electronic countermeasures

EDGE emergency deployment readiness exercise

EEL essential elements of information

EVENT end of evening nautical twilight

effective wind
the average of all the varying winds encountered

electromagnetic wave
a wave propagating as a periodic disturbance of the electromagnetic field and having a frequency in the electromagnetic spectrum

elevation adjustment
rotating the front sight post to cause the bullet to strike the higher or lower on the target

EMP electromagnetic pulse

EPW enemy prisoner of war

ERP end-route rally point

eye relief
the distance from the firing eye to the rear sight; eye relief is a function of stock weld

F Fahrenheit

FDC fire direction center

FFL final firing line

FFP final firing position

FLOT forward line of own troops

FM frequency modulated

FO forward observer

fps feet per second

FRAGO fragmentary order

freq frequency

FSK frequency-shift keying

ft feet

FTX field training exercise

a metallic connection with the earth to establish ground (or earth) potential

HAHO high altitude, high opening

half-wave antenna
an antenna whose electrical length is half the wavelength of the transmitted or received frequency

HALO high altitude, low opening

HC hydrogen chloride

HE high explosive

HF high frequency

hrs hours

Hz hertz

IAW in accordance with

ID identification

illum illumination

in inches

a device or material that has a high electrical resistance

any undesired signal that tends to interfere with the desired signal

IRP initial rally point

deliberate interference intended to prevent reception of signals in a specific frequency band

KIM keep-in-memory (exercise game)

laser light amplification by simulated emission of radiation

LBE loading-bearing equipment

LFX live-fire exercise

line of departure
the line defined by the bore of the rifle or the path the bullet would take without gravity

line of sight
a straight line from the eye through the aiming device to the point of aim

L/R left/right

LR laser range finder

LSA lubricating oil, weapons, semifluid

LZ landing zone

m meters

MEDEVAC medical evacuation

METT-T mission, enemy, terrain, troops and time available

MHz megahertz

midrange trajectory/maximum ordinate
the highest point the bullet reaches on its way to the target this point must be known to engage a target that requires firing underneath an overhead obstacle, such as a bridge or a tree; inattention to midrange trajectory may cause the sniper to hit the obstacle instead of the target

MIJI meaconing, intrusion, jamming, and interference

MILES multiple-integrated laser engagement system

min minute(s)

mm millimeter

an angle that would cover 1 inch at a distance of 100 yards, 2 inches at 200 yards, and so on; each click of sight adjustment is equal to one minute of angle

MOPP mission-oriented protection posture

MOUT military operations on urbanized terrain

mph miles per hour

MRE meal, ready-to-eat

MTP mission training plan

muzzle velocity
the speed of the bullet as it leaves the rifle barrel, measured in feet per second; it varies according to various factors, such as ammunition type and lot number, temperature, and humidity

NATO North Atlantic Treaty Organization

NBC nuclear, biological, chemical

NCO noncommissioned officer

NGF naval gunfire

NOD night observation device

NSN national stock number

OIR other intelligence requirements

OP observation post

OPORD operation order

OPSEC operations security

optical sight
sight with lenses, prisms, or mirrors used in lieu of iron sights

ORP objective rally point

O-T observer-target

PD point-detonating

PFC private first class

PIR priority intelligence requirements

POC point of contact

point of aim
the exact spot on a target the rifle sights are aligned with

point of impact
the point that a bullet strikes; usually considered in relation to point of aim

PSG platoon sergeant

PT physical training

PW prisoner of war

PZ pickup zone

QRF quick-reaction force

quarter-wave antenna
an antenna with an electrical length that is equal to one-quarter wavelength of the signal being transmitted or received

RAAMS remote antiarmor mine system

range card
small chart on which ranges and directions to various targets and other important points in the area under fire are recorded

RAP rocket-assisted projectile

RBC rifle bore cleaner

the rearward motion or kick of a gun upon firing

RECONREP reconnaissance report

retained velocity
the speed of the bullet when it reaches the target; due to drag, the velocity will be reduced

RF radio frequency

RFA restrictive fire area

RFL restrictive fire line

may refer to a complete cartridge or to the bullet

RSTA reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition

S1 adjutant

S2 intelligence officer

S3 operations and training officer

S4 supply officer

SALUTE size, activity, location, unit, time, and equipment

SAW squad automatic weapon

SEO sniper employment officer

an automatic device for controlling large amounts of power by using small amounts of power

SFC sergeant first class

SGT sergeant

SHELREP shelling report

shot group
a number of shots fired using the same aiming point which accounts for rifle, ammunition, and firer varibility three shots are enough, but any number of rounds may be fired in a group

sight alignment
placing the center tip of the front sight post in the exact center of the rear aperature

silhouette target
a target that represents the outline of a man

single sideband
a system of radio communications in which the carrier and either the upper or lower sideband is removed from AM transmission to reduce the channel width and improve the signal-to-noise ratio

SIR specific information requirements

SITREP situation report

SM smoke munitions

SOI signal operation instructions

SOP standing operating procedure

SP self-propelled

SPC specialist

SPIES special patrol insertion/extraction system

SPOTREP spot report

SSB single sideband

a system for extracting personnel by helicopter

STANAG Standardization Agreement


sharp, short bursts of noise on a radio receiver caused by electrical disturbances in the atmosphere or by electrical machinery

steady position
the first marksmanship fundamental, which refers to the establishment of a position that allows the weapon to be held still while it is being fire

stock weld
the contact of the cheek with the stock of the weapon

STRAC standards in training commission

STX situational training exercise

supported position
any position that uses something other than the body to steady the weapon (artificial support)

SWS sniper weapon system

TAB tactical air command

TFFP tentative final firing position

time of flight
the amount of time it takes for the bullet to reach the target from the time the round exits the rifle

TOC tactical operations center

TOW tube-launched, optically tracked wire-guided (missile)

the path of the bullet as it travels to the target

TRC training readiness condition

TRP target reference point

in one direction only

unsupported position
any position that requires the firer to hold the weapon steady using only his body (bone support)

USAF United States Air Force

USAR United States Army Reserve

USC United States Code

USMC United States Marine Corp

USN United States Navy

VHF very high frequency

VT variable time

the distance a wave travels during one complete cycle; it is equal to the velocity divided by the frequency

windage adjustment
moving the rear sight aperture to cause the bullet to strike left or right on the target

WP white phosphorus

adjusting the rifle sights so bullets hit the aiming point at a given range